Thursday, November 28, 2019

Motivation Theories free essay sample

Content theories of motivation are based on the fact that the labor activity of workers due solely to the needs and focus on their identification. In turn, procedural theories of motivation are based on the fact that behavior of an individual is determined not only by a person’s needs, but also by the perception of the situation, expectations for the capacity, as well as the effects of the selected type of behavior, according to Motivation. Needs. It should be noted that Abraham Maslow recognized that people have many different needs and they could be divided into five main categories: he theory of justice expectations. According to this theory, the results achieved by the employee depend on three variables: the effort, the ability of a persons character and awareness of its role in the labor process. The level of effort, in turn, depends on the value of interest and assesses the likelihood of relations efforts and rewarded. We will write a custom essay sample on Motivation Theories or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Achieving the desired results can lead to internal rewards of the satisfaction of the work performed, and external rewards financial incentives, praise, career, etc. It is also believed that there may be a link between performance and employee to give him rewards that reflect the possibilities determined by the head of a particular employee and the organization. Value theory by L. Porter E. Lawler in the practice of motivation is that it shows how important it is to create a motivational system to combine elements such as effort, ability, results, reward, satisfaction and perception. Furthermore L. Porter E. Lawler showed that the high productivity of work is the cause of complete satisfaction, rather than a consequence of it. An important conclusion of this theory is the need to change the employees salary, depending on the success of his work. According to the theory of justice, people have their own assessment of the equity interest issued for certain results. Satisfaction is the result of internal and external rewards based on their equity. Satisfaction is a measure of how valuable reward actually is. This assessment will affect the persons perception of future situations. Motivational concepts that are also enough known are related to a group of content theories are the theory of David McClelland, in which he focuses on the needs of the higher levels: power, success and involvement. On this basis, according to McClelland, there is a fourth requirement to avoid trouble, obstacles or opposition to the implementation of the above three requirements. Motivational and hygienic model of F. Herzberg. It is widely known among scholars and practitioners was another model of motivation, developed F. Hertzberg with employees in the mid 50-ies of XX century and known as the two-factor theory of hygiene. As hygiene factors, he took the following: company policy and administration;Â  working conditions; earnings; interpersonal relationships with superiors, colleagues and subordinates; degree of direct control over the work. Motivation, according to F. Herzberg, is achievement of objectives, promotion, high level of responsibility and autonomy, creative and business growth, recognition, interesting content work. According to F. Herzberg hygiene factors themselves are not a cause for satisfaction, but their degradation leads to dissatisfaction with work, according to Frederick Herzbergs motivation and hygiene factors. Therefore, these factors are not motivating for employees’ value. Group motivators directly cause job satisfaction and affect the level of labor achievements. The theory of five nuclear factors by Hackman and Oldham. In the 70-ies of XX century was published a review of Hackman and Oldham the impact of the content of labor to maintain motivation. Developing the doctrine F. Herzberg, in their model, they identified five so-called nuclear factors, which, to them, a significant effect on work motivation. In accordance with the severity of these factors in the ordinary activities of the employee, they lead to the specific experiences that Hackman and Oldham called critical mental states. Group theory of valence-instrumentality expectations includes concepts of Heinz Heckhausen, Vroom and a number of similar theories relating to procedural learning motivation towards work behavior. Common to these theories is the proposition that there is a requirement not only requirement motivation. People consciously choose a course of conduct which, in their view, would lead to the desired results. These theories try to explain what objectives are formed, and why, how persistent they are pursued to achieve the expected results. The theory of Justice S. Adams. The group process of theories of motivation is aimed at organizational problems of production, the substance of the work, and is to be widely used in the western management theory of justice, developed in the 60 years of XX century. Adams, on the results of studies conducted in the company General-Electric. This theory postulates the search for the individual a certain state of equilibrium with its social environment (in particular, in terms of evaluation and pay, rewards for achievement). Individual compares two relationships: the relationship between his own effort and reward; same ratio, seen in monitoring the activities of others and to compare with their own efforts and reward. The theory of motivation of D. Atkinson. One of the theories is a process known as the theory of motivation of D. Atkinson, the essence of which is as follows. Employee behavior is the result of the interaction of the individual qualities of the individual and the situation of its perception. Each person strives for success, avoids failure and has two related motives: the motive for success and motivations to avoid failures. The theory of reinforcement B. Skinner. A significant contribution to the study of the mechanisms of human motivation to work made development of B. Skinner, who proposed the theory in 1938, increase motivation (reinforcement theory), the essence of which is as follows: peoples behavior is determined by their past experiences. Consequently, workers prefer a mission that in the past entailed positive results, according to Theories of Motivation. All in all, there are many motivational theories and many authors who have shown their opinion considering the issue. Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler, Maslow, Atkinson Heckhausen, and Hackman and Oldham have different point of view but all of them have something in common. The theories of motivation describe the reasons and personal development that a human has and expands its potential, as well as the need for self-actualization that can never be fully satisfied. Works cited Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs motivational model.

Monday, November 25, 2019

how rap effects socity essays

how rap effects socity essays Many individuals in our society today believe that the positive portrayal of violence and sex in rap music has negative effects on its listeners. Due to this widespread perception, many studies have systematically examined rap music for evidence of its negative effects. This issue is important in that rap music has become a universal form of art. Rap music has spread into the suburbs where affluent white youth are among its greatest supporters. It is important to document the extent to which the positive portrayal of violence and sex in rap music effects its listeners, since such music may have a negative impact on today's youth. Violent crime increased by over 500 percent during the three decades ending in 1990. There may be a host of factors contributing to this social pathology, but "violence in the media" is certainly one of them. "Music industry insiders often shirk responsibility by saying their music reflects society but does not impact it," Waliszewski observes. "Some music industry insiders . . . have argued that, as performers and 'actors on the stage,' musicians cannot be held responsible for their fans' criminal behavior. Their anti-social messages are not to be taken seriously because . . . they don't actually mean what they say." Such claims are disingenuous at best. Whether they know what they're doing or not, the purveyors of this musical madness should be held accountable for the damage they've done to an entire generation of young ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Correlation between Unemployment and Divorce Rates in the United Term Paper

The Correlation between Unemployment and Divorce Rates in the United States - Term Paper Example A tendency to emphasize the social and economic costs of unemployment on society in the aggregate avoids the clear and definite problems that joblessness creates in the home. Some of these household challenges are responsible for lowering levels of subjective well-being in society, which exacerbates the negative overall effects of unemployment. One particularly troubling hypothesis is that divorce tends to increase to some degree in proportion to unemployment rates in developed countries (Jensen & Smith, 1990). The marriage destabilization caused by the loss of a job and the perhaps long-term unemployment that results may explain a great number of divorces. However, especially as one deals with aggregate population data from past years, one is not dealing with causal inferences but rather correlational observations. While it is intuitive to speculate that unemployment increases risk to divorce, one could wonder whether divorce is likely to increase unemployment. It does not seem out of the question that marital instability increases one’s chances of being dismissed or issuing a resignation from his or her work. In fact, Rogers and May (2003) found a significant correlation between increases in marital discord (defined as thoughts or actions supportive of divorce) and declines in job satisfaction. Finding a statistical correlation between unemployment and divorce would signify a number of things, namely that individuals facing long-term unemployment but are happy in their marriages should take steps to ensure the sustainability of that relationship through financial hardships. At a broader level, predictors of unemployment can also be taken as predictors of higher divorces, which give society a chance to plan for increased levels of marital instability in addition to unemployment

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Discuss How Fashion And Photography Inform Each Other Essay

Discuss How Fashion And Photography Inform Each Other - Essay Example This paper approves that the intricate relationship between photography and fashion, as evidenced in the existence of numerous fashion/photography collaborations in the history of the world of fashion, points out to the symbiotic relationship between these two fields of practice. Whereas the fashion photographers cannot exist without the designers who produce the subject of their work, the designers, on the other hand, cannot function effectively without the help of the fashion photographers who present their creative designs to the rest of the world in print. In view of the successful working relationship between the designer Issey Miyake and photographer Irving Penn’s, which went beyond commercial necessity to mutual creative respect that benefits both practitioners, it is evident that fashion and photography can, and indeed do inform one another. This paper makes a conclusion that the distinct field of fashion photography has risen out of the love relationship between fashi on and photography that has developed over the years, which has been motivated by both commercial benefits and the creative potential for practitioners in the two fields. Fashion and fashion photography collaborations allow the practitioners in both fields to indulge their creative capacity beyond imagination, thereby giving rise to fashion images that endear, challenge, and even engage individuals at various levels, making the genre of fashion photography unique and powerful.

Monday, November 18, 2019

Exploring Inclusion in a United Kingdom School Dissertation

Exploring Inclusion in a United Kingdom School - Dissertation Example The intention of this study is Inclusion of children with special needs and abilities in schools. Some parents and teachers have different views depending on their situation, as some accept it as a positive educational practice that benefits the included children with special needs as well as mainstream children. On the other hand, others do not agree to combining children with differing abilities and needs. However, breakthroughs in educational research has pushed individuals to acknowledge the practice of inclusion as viable intervention in supporting the development of children with special education needs who are placed in inclusive classrooms. This paper will endeavour to report on explorative research on inclusion in primary schools in the United Kingdom. It reviews related literature on the topic, reporting findings of various studies which mostly include the research methods of observations and interviews. The researcher has gained access to an inclusive classroom as a volunt eer, and in effect, she became a participant observer in the inclusive class. She was not only able to gain information about inclusion in her task as volunteer, but was immersed in the system so she had more in-depth perspective of what it was like to be in an inclusive class. On top of assisting the main teacher, she was vigilant in observing the children’s interactions with each other (how mainstream children interact with children with special needs) and how teachers may have differentiated the mainstream children from the children with special education needs in terms of treatment, planned activities and relationships with them. Research Questions The main research questions that guided this study were the following: Main question: How is inclusion implemented in a UK school? Sub-questions: What are the views of teachers and other adults working in inclusive settings regarding the blending of mainstream children and children with special needs in their classes? Are there any differences in treatment and the given educational programmes for mainstream children and children with special needs within the inclusive classroom? 1 Research Design The researcher was a participant observer in an inclusive school setting. She took down notes on her observations of some classes indoors and the children at play during outdoor play periods. Apart from her observations, she conducted semi-structured interviews

Friday, November 15, 2019

Constituents of ‘Kuwing’ Oil From Irvingia Gabonensis

Constituents of ‘Kuwing’ Oil From Irvingia Gabonensis ABSTRACT Kuwing oil extracted from Irvingia gabonensis seed mash fermentated over 6 days in AgoiIbami community, Nigeria, was analysed for it’s essential oil constituents. Both the fresh seed and the ferment’s oil extracts were analysed for fatty acids, organic acids and essential oils, using GC and GC-MS methods of analysis. Six (6) fatty acids: Oleic, Linoleic, Stearic, Lauric, Behenic acids were found in both samples, while Mystiric was found only in the fermented product.Five(5) organic acids constituents Citric, Glycolic, Oxalic, Malic and Tartaric acids were identified in boththe fresh seed and the ferment. While fifty one (51) chemicals were identified as volatiles or essential oils ,the main constituents are ÃŽ ± -Pinene, Carene, Trans-Ocimene, ÃŽ ±-Terpinene, Cis-Limonene Oxide, Perillaldehyde, Nootkatone, Germacrene-D, and Bornol,about 75% of the oil and nineteen (19) of the identified volatiles responsible for flavour and aroma, making up to 43% of the oil. KEY WORDS: Essential oils, Irvingiagabonensis, Ferment,  Constituents, Kuwingoil. INTRODUCTION In earliest times, Irvingiagabonensis (of simaronbaceae family) was sourced from the vast virgin forest. Then, fruits were allowed to ripen and drop from the tree top before they were hand-picked and usually, hunters gave information on the quantity of fruits on ground. Initial drops were regarded as the fruits â€Å"testing the ground†. As the quantity of fruits on ground increased, collectors were alerted by hunters. Whoever found the fruits first, owned them. No family lineage owns Irvingiagabonensis trees growing in virgin forests. However, with deforestation, some trees can now be found in secondary forests. The fruits were never harvested from the tree but, once they have dropped from the tree they are assumed matured. With increase promotion of non-timber forest products for agro-forestry, the number of irvingia trees’ plantations are on the rise. Once collected, the fruits were heaped against trunks of big trees to rotten for de-pulping. After which, the seeds/nuts were cracked open to extract the edible cotyledons. Increase demand and market expansion for irvingia cotyledon for culinary uses due to attractive revenue has led not only to harvesting the fruits from tree trunks but also splitting fresh fruitsto obtain the cotyledons. The cotyledons are usually processed into a variety of products using different processing methods. Traditionally, fermentation process is employed in the preparation of a number of products, one of which is ‘itugha’ from irvingiavargabonensis (Ekpe, O.O,2007). Sun drying also enhances the quality of bush mango seeds and this attribute give attractive prices for the sun-dried cotyledons. Modernization has adversely affected the preparation and utilization of ‘Itugha’ and this age-long nutrient rich food (Ekpe et al,2007) appears to be gradually disappearing from the community dietary. Distribution of ‘Itugha’ is usually limited to the top family members and very close friends, which always resulted in disaffection among those not so favoured in its distribution. Despite the high food value usually placed on this food item, it is fast becoming extinct. To diversify its utilization, identification of secondary products having other uses can expand and encourage itscommercial production and industrialization. Even though the food value of any food product is a measure of its nutritional potentials, measured by it’s chemical composition.Safety indicators,the level of food toxicants as well as bioavailability of the nutrients are also important (Agube, 1991). Other applications of constituents in a product can be as important as it’s food value. As such, identifying essential oil constituents of itugha can promote it’sother non-food utilization as well as it’s food uses. Essential oils are any class of highly volatile organic compounds found in plants.Chemically, essential oils are extremely complex mixtures containing compounds of very major functional-group class like terpenes, isoprenoids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and phenols. Essential oils have three primary commercial uses; as odorants in perfumes, soaps, detergents and other products: as flavours in baked goods, candies, soft drinks and other foods: and as pharmaceutical in dental products and many medicines. ( Britannicaconcised encyclopedia, Aroma Web). Most people use essential oils for their therapeutic effects as they tend to leave beneficial bacteria intact while killing the pathogens or for their fragrance alone. BuchbauerJirovetz(1994) published an excellent survey on the uses of essential oils as medicament. Studies have shown that bacteria do not acquire resistance to essential oils as they do with antibiotics and plant essential oils are also known for their antimicrobia l activitye.g. essential oils of Dacryodisedulis- African pear (Obameet at 2008). Today when so many illnesses and bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics, the therapeutic effects of essential oils and their immune-boosting abilities may be just what we need to explore. Essential oils can be detected in all the cells of the body 21 minutes after application. Essential oils are designated and defined by the plant species and sometimes geographical location( McGraw-Hill Science Technology Encyclopedia). Kuwing oil produced from seeds of Irvingiagabonensis pulverized and fermented over 6 days and heat treated for 2 days, is investigated for it’s essential oil composition. The value of non-timber forest products lies in their use as a supplementary food supply, as a source of vitamins, as snacks during hunting and gathering forays in the bush, as beverages, building materials, farm and kitchen tools and in the maintenance of traditional rites and pastimes (Alexandaretal, 1994). A key feature of the Irvingia study has been the gathering and documentation of indigenous knowledge on the species to expand the scope of available information on its possible utilization and application.. To the best of our knowledge, no literature information is available on essential oil composition of‘kuwing oil’ fromIrvingiagabonensis. Thus this study would in addition to, exploring precursor compounds in fresh odourlessirvingiagabonensis seed, highlight constituents of kuwing oil for its utilization prospects in industry especially for non-food purposes. The fresh seed is odourless, colourless and without flavour. Macerating/pounding, heat treatment and fermenting mashed seeds in control conditions produces odour and flavourin the mash. This is known to increases its acceptance in the food industry and projects potential utilization prospects in the non-food industry. In this paper we are reporting the chemical composition of essential oils of ‘kuwing oil’ extracted from irvingiagabonensis seed. This study will cover identification of possible precursors of flavour compounds e.g. fatty acids and organic acids from fresh irvingia seeds and the volatiles or essential oils constituents, of kuwing oil, from heat treated fermented irvingiagabonensis seed mash. MATERIALS AND METHOD Fresh Irvingiagabonensis seeds was milled with the mill unit of a National blender, Model MX 495 for six (6) days under controlled condition. After each day’s milling, the mash was wrapped withPiper umbellantum leaves. This was to simulate the repeated milling under controlled conditions, that is necessary for the production of a fermented traditional spread from I. gabonensis called ‘itugha’ . Oil drip from this ferment is the ‘Kuwing’ Oil. The fatty acid content of fresh Irvingia seed and Kuwing Oil sample were determined using the method of International laboratory (1993). In this method, the samples were first extracted with petiether to remove the oiliness in the samples. The lipid extracts were Methylated and the methyl esters of the respective fatty acids in the solvent fractions were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography. A 250ml flask was weighed( wo), 5g of sample quantitatively weighed into a fat extraction thimble and 250ml petroleum ether poured into the previously weighed flask containing anti-bumping chips. A soxhlet extractor into which the thimble with its contents had been introduced was then fitted into the round bottom flask and the extraction apparatus mounted on a heating mantle. The contents of the flask were heated and extraction process continued for about 15 hours. At the end of extraction, petroleum ether in the round bottom flask was distilled off the oily extract with the soxhlet and the litt le quantity finally evaporated off in a water bath at 500c. The flask and the fat extract were finally dried in a hot air circulating oven at 1000C, cooled in a desiccator and weighed (w1) Methylation of Fat Extract i.The fat sample were heated for 2 hours under a current of nitrogen at 80-900C with 4%sulphuric acid in methanol. ii.After cooling and the addition of distilled water, iii.the resulting methyl esters were extracted several times into hexane. iv.The combined extracts were dried over sodium carbonate and anhydrous sodium sulphate (in a dessicator). v.The solvent fraction was then reduced in volume by a stream of nitrogen. Gas-Liquid Chromatography Each methylated oil samples were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography on a Carlo Erba gas chromatograh 5160 Mega series, equipped with a shimadzu data processor C-R3A using the following experimental conditions: (a)Glass capillary column 25m x 0.32mm i.d coated with SE 52. (b)Column temperature 600C (c)Injector and detector temperature 2800C. (d)Carrier gas-hydrogen about 0.40 Kgcm-2 (e)Injection mode-split detector F ID (Field ion desorption). (f)Identification of compounds – retention time and by GC-MS using a Finnigan Mat ITD 800 with a 25m x 0.32mm i.d. fused-silica capillary column coated with SE 52. (g)Column temperature 60-2400C at 30C/min. (h)Ionizing voltage 70eV Organic acid content was determined in Irvingia seed and the ferment from which Kuwing oil was extracted, by Gas chromatography – Mass Spectrometry, Bengtsson and Lehotay method (1996) with some modification. 1g of sample was pulverized with 1ml of distilled water, acidified with 1ml 1M HCl to a pH of about 1.0, saturated with NaCl, then extracted with 3ml of ethyl acetate and 3ml of diethyl ether. The organic phases were combined and evaporated to dryness under nitrogen. The sample was derivatised with 0.100ml of BSTFA-TMCS at 650C for 10 min, diluted with 0.400ml of hexane/ethyl acetate (50% v/v) and 1  µ1 was injected into the GC-MS and analysed. Gas chromatographic, mass spectral and data analysis on Carlo Erba gas chromatograh 5160 Mega Series, equipped with a Shimadzu data Processor C-R3A: Sample was analysed by GC-MS by injecting 1 u1 of the sample in spliteless mode onto an open tubular glass capillary column 25m x 0.32mm i.d coated with SE 52, and the injector was k ept at 2500C. The carrier gas was hydrogen, with a flow-rate of 1ml/min. The GC oven was held at 900C for 4min, then raised at 80C/min. The peaks were identified by reference to a mass spectral library. Essential/ volatile oils present in irvingia seeds and kuwing oil were identified using Giovanni Dugo and AnthonellVerzera (1993) method. In this method, fat extract was obtained from 10g of sample with petroleum ether. The sample of oil was prepared for gas-liquid chromatography on a Carlo Erba gas chromatograph 5160 mega series column 25m x 0.32mm i-d, 600C at 30C/min and hydrogen carrier gas 10g of sample was extracted with 100ml of petroleum ether (60-800C) by soxhlet extraction. Petroleum ether was distilled to afford an oily fraction prepared for gas-liquid chromatography analysis. GC-MC analysis of Volatiles: The volatile fraction were collected by steam distillation and the volatiles were extracted thoroughly into methylene dichloride and concentrated. The concentrated volatiles were separated by gas-liquid chromatography on a Carlo Erba gas chromatograh 5160 Mega series, equipped with a shimadzu data processor C-R3A under the following experimental conditions: i.Glass capillary column 25m x 0.32mm i.d. coated with SE 52. ii.Column temperature 600C to 1000C at 30C/min. iii.Injector and detector temperature 2800C iv.Carrier gas0hydrogen about 0.40kgcm-2 v.Injection mode-split detector field ion desorption (FID). vi.Identification compounds – retention time and by GC-MC using a Finnigam Mat ITD 800 with a 25mm x 0.32mm i.d. fused-silica capillary column coated with SE 52. vii.Column temperature 60-2500C at 30C/min viii.Ionizing voltage 70eV. Relative amounts of detected compounds were calculated based on GC peaks. Volatiles Identification in Kuwing Oil Essential oils constituents of Kuwing oil identified against standards 1. ÃŽ ± -Pinene 2. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Pinene 3. Camphene 4. Carene 5. ÃŽ ±-Terpinene 6. p-Cymene + Limonene 7. Trans-à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Ocimene 8. Y-terpinene 9. Octanol 10.Terpinolene 11. Trans-Sarbine hydrate 12. Nonanal 13. Cis-Limonene Oxide 14. Trans-limonene Oxide 15. Isopulegol 16. Citronellal 17. Borneol 18. ÃŽ ±-Terpinol 19. Decanal 20. Nerola + Citronellol 21. Neral 22. Piperitone 23. Linalyl acetate 24. Geranial 25. Perillaldehyde 26. Undecanal 27. Nonyla acetate 28. ÃŽ ±-ester 29. ÃŽ ±-Terpernyl acetate 30. Citronellyl acetate 31. Neryl acetate 32. Heranyl acetate 33. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Caryophyllene 34. Trans-à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Bergamotene 35. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Humulene 36. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Sabtalene 37. Aldehydic ester 38. Germacrene-D 39. Germacrane-B 40. Germacrane-D 41. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Bisobolene 42. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Sesquiphellandrene 43. Trans-ÃŽ ±-Nerolidol 44. Cis, trans-Fernesol 45. NootKatone DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Gas-liquid chromatography estimation of fatty acids in Irvingiagabonensis seed and the ferment is shown in Table 1. Six fatty acid fractions were identified in the ferment and five in Irvingia seed. Oleic, linoleic, stearic,lauric and behenic acids were identified in the ferment. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid inIrvingia seed and ferment. The level of oleic acid was very low both in the ferment and Irvingia seed. Processing had little or no effect on its level. Stearic acid level in Irvingia seed was very low. However, processing increased its level significantly in the ferment. The levels of stearic, lauric and behenic acids were also increased in the ferment. The decreases in linoleic acid in the ferment is very revealing. Linoleic acid can be oxidatively degraded to C6 aldehydes, alcohols and their esters. These C6 compounds play significant roles in essential oils development (Kobayashi et al., 1994). This type of degradation might be the cause of decrease in leve l of linolenic acid from 80% total lipid in Irvingia seed to about 52% total lipid in the ferment. There were good levels of stearic acid, behenic acid (a seed triglyceride) and mystiric acid in the ferment. Mystiric acid was not detected in Irvingia seed but was detected in good proportion in the ferment. McBurneyetal. 1990) reported that microbial fermentation of starch results in the production of some fatty acids, depending on the chemical composition of the starch. This could explain the appearance of mystiric acid in the ferment which was hitherto absent in Irvingiagabonensis seed. The high level of mystiric acid in the ferment could have been due to microbial enzyme hydrolysis of starches in Irvingiagabonensis seed, and subsequent degradation to aldehydes, alcohols etc. Table 2 shows organic acid content of Irvingia seed and the ferment. Organic acids influenced pH that determines microbial growth and serve as preservatives. They influence the formation, type and rate of thermally produced flavour (Maga, 1994). These acids could have been produced from the non-total oxidation of sugars, as well as the deamination of amino acids, ascorbic acid and polyphenolic acids. Formation of volatiles in food can also be attributed to enzymic biosynthesis. The cell rupturing which took place during maceration of irvingiaseeds, could have caused enzymes and precursors of essential oils to come in contact with one another. Bacterial growth suppression and primary metabolism can trigger biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in cell cultures ( Prahba et al., 1990). This agrees with bacterial growth suppression in controlled fermentation of the irvingia seed mash in itughaproduction( Ekpe,O.O.2009).Some of the Organic acids identified in the fresh seeds were lost in the ferment e.g. Malic acid in the seed 6.28% decreased to 0.11% in the ferment, Citric acid in the seed 16.0% to 2% in the ferment and Oxalic acid 6.6% seed to 2% ferment while fatty acid like Linoleic acid decreased from 80% in the seed to 52% in the ferment. Autolysis consisting of plasmolysis followed by proteolysis usually require up to 24 hours of temperatures above 45o c. Plasmolysis can be initiated by different treatments including hot air drying( Saeki et al., 1989). This is in consonant with the observation that volatiles of kuwing oil were formed not less than 24 hours of hot air drying of the irvingia ferment. Each autolysate is known to have its own distinctive taste and odour(Lieske and Konrad, 1994). Fig.1 shows constituent of kuwingoil (essential oil) revealing the presence of Terpenes like Citronellal, Limonene, Terpinolene, ÃŽ ±-Terpinene and isoprenoids among others.The extraction and synthesis of terpenes is the basis of the perfumery industry. They find a variety of uses in the food and pharmaceutical industry as flavor and odour improver. Citronellal is known to have insect repellant properties and research show its high repellant effectiveness against mosquitoes and strong antifungal qualities(Jeong-Kyu KIM et al.,2005; Kazuhiko NAKAHARA et al.,2003; Solomons, T.W.G 2006). ÃŽ ±-Pinene, camphene, ÃŽ ´3-carene, Trans-ÃŽ ²-ocimene, Y-terpinene, octanol, cis-Limonene oxide, Neral and Perillaldehyde constitute 75% of the oil Odourlessirvingiagabonensis seed, macerated and fermentedover six days producedKuwing oil on exposure to temperatures above 45 degrees celcius. This oil was obtained by compressing, extracting, or distilling off heat sensitive volatiles from crushed and fermented irvingiagabonensis seedsSince essential oils often have odour and are therefore used in food flavouring/ perfumery, kuwing oil can qualify as of perfume quality oil which should be included among oils found in health foods(Wiley Dictionary of Flavours). When extracted for this purpose, extremely low pressure and low heat distillation is recommended( Wikipedia).On analyses for essential oils constituents, 75% of these constituents are established essential oil constituents used in industries. And 45% of these find application in perfumery and aromatory industries. Others have been known to have antimicrobial and antifungal activity e.g.ÃŽ ±-pinene, camphene, careen, octanol, Limonene, Neral, Citronellal etc. It is expedient t hen to list kuwing oil from irvingiagabonensis seed as an essential oil.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Animal Testing Essay -- Animal Testing

Animal Testing   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Using Animals for testing is wrong and should be banned. They should be entitled to the rights we have. Every day humans are using defenseless animals for cruel and most often useless tests. The animals cannot fight for themselves therefore we must. There should be stronger laws to protect them from laboratory experiments.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Although private companies run most labs, experiments are often conducted by public organizations. The U.S. government, the Army and Air Force in particular, has designed and conducted many animal experiments. The experiments were engineered so that many animals would suffer and die without any certainty that this suffering and death would save a single life, or benefit humans in any way at all. An example of this is some tens of thousands of Beagles experimented with. In Albuquerque, New Mexico, 64 Beagles were forced to inhale radioactive Strontium 90 as part of a â€Å"Fission Product Inhalation Program† which has been paid for by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In this experiment 26 dogs died. One of the deaths occurred during an epileptic seizure; another from brain hemorrhage. Other dogs, before death, became feverish and anemic, lost their appetites, and had hemorrhages. The experimenters compared their results to those experiments conducted at th e University of Utah and the Argonne National Laboratory in which beagles were injected with Strontium 90. They concluded that the...