Monday, December 30, 2019

The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald - 2068 Words

Parties, flappers, jazz, alcohol, and change are all ways to define the boisterous, extravagant era known today as the Roaring Twenties. Women especially set the stage for transforming society, as they broke tradition and advanced into the world. They earned money for themselves, became independent, and were able to voice their opinion with the freedom to vote. F. Scott Fitzgerald emphasizes the emerging woman and her willingness to break free from social standards and create her own customs in The Great Gatsby. Daisy, a submissive woman, relies on her husband Tom’s money to provide happiness, yet rebels and has an affair with her true love, Jay Gatsby. Jordan Baker mirrors the pretentious and irresponsible flapper personality and challenges gender roles by pursuing a career in golf. Lastly, Myrtle Wilson, an outsider, participates in an affair with Tom Buchanan, yet falls into his trap of violence. All three of these women imitate similar personalities of women in Fitz gerald s own life. Daisy mirrors Fitzgerald’s unrealistic dream, Ginevra King, and his wife, Zelda, while Jordan resembles Fitzgerald’s friend, Edith Cummings, as they both pursued the career of golf and propelled themselves into society as independent women. In The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald emphasizes the contrast between the expectations of women’s behaviors before and during the 1920s, while focusing on the emergence of the â€Å"new woman† and the new freedoms of women in relation to theShow MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald1393 Words   |  6 PagesF. Scott Fitzgerald was the model of the American image in the nineteen twenties. He had wealth, fame, a beautiful wife, and an adorable daughter; all seemed perfect. Beneath the gilded faà §ade, however, was an author who struggled with domestic and physical difficulties that plagued his personal life and career throughout its short span. This author helped to launch the theme that is so prevalent in his work; the human instinct to yearn for more, into the forefront of American literature, where itRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1343 Words   |  6 PagesHonors English 10 Shugart 18 Decemeber 2014 The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald s 1925 novel The Great Gatsby is a tragic love story, a mystery, and a social commentary on American life. The Great Gatsby is about the lives of four wealthy characters observed by the narrator, Nick Carroway. Throughout the novel a mysterious man named Jay Gatsby throws immaculate parties every Saturday night in hope to impress his lost lover, Daisy Buchanan. Gatsby lives in a mansion on West Egg across from DaisyRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1155 Words   |  5 PagesThe Great Gatsby The Jazz Age was an era where everything and anything seemed possible. It started with the beginning of a new age with America coming out of World War I as the most powerful nation in the world (Novel reflections on, 2007). As a result, the nation soon faced a culture-shock of material prosperity during the 1920’s. Also known as the â€Å"roaring twenties†, it was a time where life consisted of prodigality and extravagant parties. Writing based on his personal experiences, author F. ScottRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1166 Words   |  5 Pagesin the Haze F. Scott Fitzgerald lived in a time that was characterized by an unbelievable lack of substance. After the tragedy and horrors of WWI, people were focused on anything that they could that would distract from the emptiness that had swallowed them. Tangible greed tied with extreme materialism left many, by the end of this time period, disenchanted. The usage of the literary theories of both Biographical and Historical lenses provide a unique interpretation of the Great Gatsby centered aroundRead MoreThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald845 Words   |  3 PagesIn F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Great Gatsby, colors represent a variety of symbols that relate back to the American Dream. The dream of being pure, innocent and perfect is frequently associated with the reality of corruption, violence, and affairs. Gatsby’s desire for achieving the American Dream is sought for through corruption (Schneider). The American Dream in the 1920s was perceived as a desire of w ealth and social standings. Social class is represented through the East Egg, the WestRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay970 Words   |  4 Pagesrespecting and valuing Fitzgerald work in the twenty-first century? Fitzgerald had a hard time to profiting from his writing, but he was not successful after his first novel. There are three major point of this essay are: the background history of Fitzgerald life, the comparisons between Fitzgerald and the Gatsby from his number one book in America The Great Gatsby, and the Fitzgerald got influences of behind the writing and being a writer. From childhood to adulthood, Fitzgerald faced many good andRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald2099 Words   |  9 Pagesauthor to mirror his life in his book. In his previous novels F. Scott Fitzgerald drew from his life experiences. He said that his next novel, The Great Gatsby, would be different. He said, â€Å"In my new novel I’m thrown directly on purely creative work† (F. Scott Fitzgerald). He did not realize or did not want it to appear that he was taking his own story and intertwining it within his new novel. In The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, he imitates his lifestyle through the Buchanan family to demonstrateRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1607 Words   |  7 Pages The Great Gatsby is an American novel written in 1925 by F. Scott Fitzgerald. One of the themes of the book is the American Dream. The American Dream is an idea in which Americans believe through hard work they can achieve success and prosperity in the free world. In F. Scott Fitzgerald s novel, The Great Gatsby, the American Dream leads to popularity, extreme jealousy and false happiness. Jay Gatsby’s recent fortune and wealthiness helped him earn a high social position and become one of the mostRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1592 Words   |  7 PagesMcGowan English 11A, Period 4 9 January 2014 The Great Gatsby Individuals who approach life with an optimistic mindset generally have their goals established as their main priority. Driven by ambition, they are determined to fulfill their desires; without reluctance. These strong-minded individuals refuse to be influenced by negative reinforcements, and rely on hope in order to achieve their dreams. As a man of persistence, the wealthy Jay Gatsby continuously strives to reclaim the love of hisRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1646 Words   |  7 PagesThe 1920s witnessed the death of the American Dream, a message immortalized in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Initially, the American Dream represented the outcome of American ideals, that everyone has the freedom and opportunity to achieve their dreams provided they perform honest hard work. During the 1920s, the United States experienced massive economic prosperity making the American Dream seem alive and strong. However, in Fitzgerald’s eyes, the new Am erican culture build around that

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Globalization A Benefit For America - 1343 Words

Globalization: A Benefit to America Globalization. What is it exactly? And why is there so much debate and controversy surrounding it? This topic has sparked protests all over the world. Like with many other topics, some support globalization and what it has accomplished. Others have hatred and believe it should not exist. Why do some people believe that globalization is an essential process and helps the economy immensely, while others see it as the root of pure evil and destruction? The answer is not black or white. There is no right or wrong answer, but a mere â€Å"What have you done for me lately?† Although each side can plead its case, globalization has overall benefited the world through international trade, outsourcing and building better relationships between different countries that could benefit the country as a whole in the future. What is Globalization? Globalization can be defined as the process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. states For more than a decade, globalization has been a deeply divisive topic among social activists, intellectuals, business leaders, policy makers and politicians. Globalization is a force that has had a huge impact on how the U.S. economy is shaped today. Technology has played an essential role on the huge impact that it has had all over the world. It use to takeShow MoreRelatedWhat Does The Globalization Of Drug Trade Benefit Countries? The Golden Triangle And South America?1759 Words   |  8 PagesTo what extent does the globalization of drug trade benefit countries in the golden triangle and South America? The two sources I choose to evaluate was a letter to the president of Peru and a 335 page book about dru g trafficking around the world. Both of these sources provide valuable information to my research question. The letter to the president of Peru was from H.E. Jose Antonio Garcia Belaunde who is the minister of foreign affairs in Peru. This letter was created at the General DebateRead MoreGlobalization and Outsourcing Can be Beneficial Essay1167 Words   |  5 Pagesharm America and its economy. Unfortunately, jobs are going to be lost and the unemployment rate may rise due to globalization. However, the benefits of globalization are infinite. People in other parts of the world will achieve a greater life than they ever thought possible due to the factories built in their countries. Due to the poverty in third world countries, these factories will provide a great source of income for the citizens of third world countries. People in America will benefit fromRead MoreIntroduction Globalization960 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Introduction Globalization is an ongoing process integrating economies, industries, markets, cultures, societies and policies around the world. Whether globalization is good or bad is a question that people around the globe are constantly debating over. The answer depends on which part of the world you stand on, for globalization have different impacts on every ‘participant’. The Good The good side of globalization is that it promotes open markets which allows businesses to communicate effectivelyRead MoreThe Pros and Cons of Globalization Essay1680 Words   |  7 PagesGlobalization. Everyday you hear it on the news, you read it in the newspaper, and you overhear people talking about it- and in every single instance the word globalization seems to have a different meaning. When I hear of globalization I think of the whole world coming close together in all phases. I tend to think that we as human beings are breaking down barriers that have been protected or guarded. For instance, I initially thought of the progress we are making in the communication aspect. SoRead MoreThe Integration Of Globalization907 Words   |  4 PagesThe Relevancy of Globalization The term ‘globalization’ has become the paradigm of explaining the interconnectedness of the world and its inhabitants. While there are numerous definitions, the one coined by Gao Shangquan fits into context: Economic globalization refers to the increasing interdependence of world economies as a result of the growing scale of cross-border trade of commodities and services, flow of international capital and wide and rapid spread of technologies. Since the beginningRead More The Elimination of the Middle Class1256 Words   |  6 Pages Globalization is the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network by transportation, communication, and trade. Through a global lens the process of globalization seems to be vital to the development of the modern world. As a result of globalization there has been a dramatic transition in every aspect of life around the world, more specifically in areas such as trade, immigration, and human development. International trade bolsters salesRead MoreGlobalization Of The United States853 Words   |  4 PagesGlobalization Globalization is a result of each country around the world, depending on one another for certain products as well as needing them to buy specific exports. Without it, no country can flourish and with it, there will always be inequality. It is something that is vital to our country as well as those around the world. The risk of inequality is outweighed by the possible benefits of globalization. After World War II, the United States began rebuilding itself and the economy. Along withRead MoreIs Globalization Good for Workers? Definitions and Evidence from Latin America1118 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to most economists, globalization is seen as a beneficial asset for workers, while on the other hand, various sociologists, anthropologists, and historians would beg to differ. Several data determines that even though globalization has increased average incomes in Latin America, the cases of employment quality still tend to be deteriorating. It is important to note the different dimensions of the effect globalization has caused and mechanisms that either benefit or harm workers in changesRead MoreThe Drawbacks Of Globalization920 Words   |  4 PagesYou either hate it or you love it. Globalization. Has its benefits and has its drawbacks. Do the benefits overturn the drawbacks? Benefits include the spread of new culture, jobs, diversity, as well as careers. It improves the global economy, expands knowledge of foreign cultures, and free trade equals a happy economy. Drawbacks of globalization include, taking jobs away from locals, people move country to country wherever they can make the most money and leave the poorer countries which in turnRead MoreThe benefits of globalization outweigh its cost. How far do you agree with this statement?1477 Words   |  6 PagesThe term globalization is defined as growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, free international capital flows, and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. All definitions appear to agree that globalization has economic, political, cultural, and technological aspects that may be closely intertwined by the International Monetary Fund . Benefits is defined as advantage or profit

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Demonstrate Leadership in Your Mba Application Free Essays

Demonstrate Leadership in Your MBA Application When faced with any iteration of the leadership question on MBA essays, many business school applicants freak out because they think they have to come up with an example that is their greatest life or professional achievement. In reality, it’s not about grand gestures or formal leadership titles. The goal is leaving a footprint on whatever situation you’re in and doing more than a good job. We will write a custom essay sample on Demonstrate Leadership in Your Mba Application or any similar topic only for you Order Now Applicants need to think through their past experiences to find the episodes that best illustrate their leadership skills. Sometimes, the best examples are not the first that come to mind. Your leadership essay will often be different from an â€Å"accomplishment† or â€Å"achievement† oriented essay. Just because you achieved something outstanding does not always mean leadership skills were involved, especially if you did most or all of the work. [Learn how to strike the right tone in MBA essays. ] One of the central tenets of leadership essays is showing that you can galvanize the actions of other people. You bring out their passions. You educate them. You help them see organizational priorities in new ways. And then they share in the achievement. The work of a leader activates or improves the work of others, so find anecdotes in your professional and extracurricular background that illustrate this kind of pattern. What kind of experiences will make the best tales of leadership? Think about challenges where the following came into play: †¢ Identifying/defining a problem †¢ Resisting conventional approaches; challenging status quo †¢ Marshaling resources to address a problem †¢ Motivating others †¢ Making good use of others’ talents †¢ Being open to new information and input Building consensus with appropriate stakeholders †¢ Guiding strong midcourse corrections; overcoming mistakes †¢ Building on success [Get more tips on writing MBA admissions essays. ] Remember: Leadership is not just about the titles. Some candidates build their leadership essays around the fact that they were selected for or elected to certain positions where they had a high level of authority and responsibility: editor-in-chief of a college paper, fraternity president, captain of the hockey team, director of product development, or vice president of marketing. But what did you do with this position? An editor of a college daily could write about how he or she was constantly challenged to maintain high levels of editorial excellence, manage staff assignments, and hit all deadlines. This is definitely an esteemed position with many responsibilities, but if you describe your role like that, it sounds exactly the same as the other hundreds of editors-in-chief of college papers also applying this season. Define the leadership challenges you faced, not the management ones. Did you have to deal with a certain writer who falsified interview notes? Was there a sticky campus scandal that forced you and your staff to walk an ethical tightrope? Did you have to fire student editors? Did you lead a transition from a weekly to a daily with all of the scheduling and human resources rigors that entails? Collecting impressive titles does not make someone a great leader—helping a team overcome great challenges does. [Avoid seven deadly sins of MBA applicants. ] The strongest leadership essays will have heroes other than yourself. If you helped Terri in accounts receivable realize her full potential on a project you led, showcase her as a hero in your leadership tale. In the best possible scenario, applicants should map out a good balance at the beginning of their application process between achievement-oriented essays and those focusing specifically on leadership. The good news is that, in many instances, you can still adjust your application fairly late in the process to achieve the appropriate balance between individual achievement and leadership. Adding in a few sentences about enabling others, or educating and defining priorities for group endeavors, will go a long way toward rounding out your profile. Many achievement essays can be transformed into glorious examples of leadership when you shine the spotlight on others who were a part of a great collective accomplishment. Don’t forget that leadership is never a solo effort. When it comes to MBA essays, you can’t go wrong if you show how you’ve worked to inspire others and bring out the best in them How to cite Demonstrate Leadership in Your Mba Application, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Myer Holdings Balanced Scorecard Analysis

Question: Discuss about the Myer Holdings Balanced Scorecard Analysis. Answer: Introduction Myer is a leading company that enjoys a proud heritage, and its future looks bright. With the retail industry and customer changing, Myer has an opportunity to revitalize and transform the delivery of services (Myer, 2016). The managers and employees of the company continue to work hard to do things right. The company has designed a balanced scorecard ensures the organization assesses its user perspective, financial perspective, innovation perspective, and internal perspective. The BSC is acceptable across the world as it ensures the organization supports its staff through a specified model. Myer Holdings is a leading retail store company in Australia involves in the working department stores. This business provides eleven product categories under 65 stores (Myer, 2015). The organization deals in include cosmetics, perfumed, beauty, young generation fashion, and electrical products. Based on the prepared Balanced Scorecard, the company will improve its performance. In fact, under the current CEO, Myer Holdings is performing better compared to the previous years. However, the anticipated entry of Amazon in 2018 would have a direct impact on the financial performance of Myer Holding. Financial Perspectives Myer Holdings seems to have registered weak overall financial performance. In 2016, Myers sales grew by overt 2.9 percent that saw the sales go up by three percent based on the comparable stores performance. This followed the rollout if expected brands (Myer, 2016). It also improved the customer services. Myer Holdings made incessant efforts to grow its business as it focuses on the execution of the new business strategy. In 2016, Myer Holdings operating gross profit margin reduced by about 38.7 percent. This followed the robust customers responses to its new brand. The introduced brand focused on high concession mix with exemplary sales productivity (Ang, Lin, Huang, 2010). However, it lowered the gross profit margin. The firms continued move to emphasize on exclusive brands has negatively affected the margins. Similarly, the depreciation of the Australian dollars also affected the operating gross profits. This is because; it opted to mitigate the impact through markdown efficienci es and to focus on prices and product. The measures introduced saw the organization improve its net operating cash flows that improved by $36 million. In response to the positive cash flow and balance sheet, the Board opted to offer its shareholders dividends at about 5 cents per share. Compared to the 2015 financial year, the inventory was higher by $14 million. However, this improved represented only $12 million positive results (Myer, 2015). The company intends to accelerate its capital investment in 2017, in particular, in its priority stores. The firm targets an average growth in sales greater than 3 percent between 2017 and 2020. In 2016, the company recorded a sales growth of 2.9 percent. By 2010, Myer Holdings targets an improvement in sales of about 20 percent per square meters. With the anticipated competition in the industry, reliance on the unstainable and unsustainable cost-cutting would be essential to the company. Myer Holdings will manage to improve profitability. According to Miles (2017), lowering footprint expansion becomes the strategy to counter the Amazon expansion into Australia. Indeed, by opening new specialty stores in various parts of the country can benefit Myer beyond the reproach. The new entrant will disrupt the competitive landscape and the Myers competitive position. Since Amazon is an entirely online business, it will increase online competition that would reduce its sales (, 2017). However, Myer has opted to implement a new strategy based on detailed customer insights thus offer wonderful customer experiences. The Customer Perspective Myer Holdings has focused on serving the local customers with quality products. The customers have responded positively towards the companys new business strategy. In the firms Premium Stores and Flagship have affirmed the significance of the additional investment as they offer customers the best customer service. As a result, Myer has achieved a 6 percent improvement in the Net Promoter Scores. According to Myer Holdings, the cunsumer perspective performance remains weak (Zizlavsky, 2014). Despite its established performance metrics, measuring how the new strategy will deliver remains a nightmare. Nevertheless, the company remains committed to its achievement timelines so that it can achieve sustainable profits. Unfortunately, the company failed to deliver a strategic plan that has affected its share price, reputation, and sales. To this effect, the organization developed a new strategic plan based on the internal and external customer insights, and it intends to implement it in dif ferent phases (Pash, 2016). For example, Myer intends to deliver the new Myer, resettle the business, and transform its operations through mobilization of resources. The issue that has further tainted the reputation of Myer is the continued regulatory investigations into its operations and conducts. For example, the Australian Taxation Office and other regulatory agencies have scrutinized the business behaviour of the firm. The outcomes of these investigations have completely affected the companys financial and operating performance (Myer, 2016). For instance, in 2015, the Australian Securities and Investments Commission exposed the company a scrutiny following the widespread claim over continued disclosure practices. However, the organization has dismissed such investigations as baseless because it has met its disclosure obligations. The managers and owners of Myer are heightened by the acknowledgment of the significance of customers. The company focuses on the customer satisfaction. In a competitive business environment, customers have high bargaining power. The failure by an organization to meet their expectations would motivate them to seek solace in the rival companies (Glova Gavurova, 2016). It appears that company has a balanced scorecard because it empathizes on the customer satisfaction and financial perspective. This has made the company remain successful in 2016. With the anticipated entry of Amazon, the company will have to review its strategy. Therefore, retaining customers and attracting new customers by 2020 would involve expanding its market base through diversifications. The Internal Process Perspective The internal process focuses on the internal activities that Myer performs. According to Zizlavsky (2014), Myer has distinguished unique activities that have made it excel and maximize performance in Australia. According to the company, it has established a structured proactive management of risks to manage and assess the risk factors. In fact, with the internal control systems, Myer has achieved its business objectives. The control system has also ensured the firm overcome the macro-economic factors including natural events, poor consumer preference, currency fluctuation, terrorism, weak global economy, and dynamic government policies (Zizlavsky, 2014). Myer uses and analyses the available economic data to mitigate the sales impact. As a result, it has implemented capital management, conservative hedging, and anticipated impact on sales. With businesses focusing on technology, Myer is taking the strategic efforts to change its digital environment. The adoption of the technology is never waterproof but its malfunction of the systems and cyber security concerns are risky factors that must be considered. These risks expose the organization to detrimental effects on its sales. This would the situation in 2020, as the business will invest fully in the technology to outperform other players. Given the significance of Amazon in the online business, Myer might rarely beat it (Huang, 2017). This will see the company reduce its sales even if it offsets the risks. Myer will have to improve its internal process to allow it deliver efficient business operations. The companys board had to introduce deferred STI component. The board will make such changes by focusing on the executive top improve the annual performance and support and retain critical talents (Fujii, 2015). As part of its internal development processes, Myer will invest in employee training and growth skills. In fact, it recognizes that the company will manage to retain the top talents by considering the career planning aspects as explained by Myer (2016). Interestingly, the internal processes perspective ensures there is a timely service and product delivery. Myer will have to overcome the unbalanced Amazons balanced scorecard by investing in the marketing aspects to attract and retain its customers. Based on these activities, the performance of the firm is average because of its ability to negotiate with suppliers and invest in the IT systems. In the future, the company will have to improve its merchandise and match customer movements. The Learning and Growth Perspective The employee growth and development remains the cornerstone of Myer Holdings. The learning and growth perspective has defined the companys future because it has invested in the top talents as explained by Mullins (2017). For instance, the company has incessantly expanded its market share by opening new stores. It also intends to continue opening these stores in the next five years so that it can serve the last customer in the market. Additionally, Myer has balanced its balanced business scorecard by linking all the perspectives (Glova Gavurova, 2016). With the anticipated entry of the global giant into the Australian market, Myer should invest with it by expanding its digital infrastructure. The success will depend on how it responds to the purchasing patterns of customers. Myer Holdings must strengthen its RD efforts to understand the market needs thus responds accordingly. Diversification is another strategy that Myer has used to survive in the current market environment. Despite the fierce competition, it has proved its ability to develop new products based on the market demands (Mullins, 2017). For example, it introduced apparels as part of its product line. Myer has also focused on developing tailored offers for its customers to avoid losing its loyal customers to the rivals and new entrants. It must leverage the loyalty programs. With the intensive effort to train and invest in human capital, Myer has confirmed its future is bright. According to Bartholomeusz (2017), this perspective addresses the aspects of training hours, employee skill levels, and employee turnover. Myer has to implement the BSC so that it can improve the results and performance by 2020. Although the company is currently doing well, with the entry of Amazon, Myer will have to review its marketing approach and employee development plans. Dysfunctional Consequences of the Possible Balanced Scorecard for 2020 A dysfunctional balanced scorecard is disastrous to the organization because it shows how a firm uses the worst business strategy. Based on the result of this analysis, the performance of Myer is average. For example, it intends to accelerate its capital investment and open new stores. Refurbishing and upgrading the stores across Australia will be beneficial to the success of this organization. Myer (2016), by expanding its footprint in the market and expanding in a specialty store would help to improve its profitability. Therefore, the organization must address the issues emerging from its financial and customer perspectives to improve its chances of dominating the market. For instance, by avoiding litigations would improve its reputation among the customers. References Ang, J., Lin, W. Huang, Y.H. (2010). A performance-oriented risk management framework for innovative RD project. Technovation, 30(11/12), pp. 601-611. Bartholomeusz, S. (2017, Mar 16). New Myer Business Strategy Gaining Traction. Business Review. Retrieved 13 April 2017 from Fujii, T. (2015). Global Competitive Advantage Skill of Balanced Scorecard by SWOT Analysis and Strategic Map New Version, Kindle Edition. Tom Publishing. Glova, J. Gavurova, B. (2016). Performance Indicators as a Part of Balanced Scorecard System within a Company. Retrieved 13 April 2017 from Huang, E. (2017, Apr 5). Big Changes Coming to Australia When Amazon Arrives, Says Customer Experience Expert. CNBC. Retrieved 13 April 2017 Miles, N. (2017, January 20). Prediction for the Australian Grocery Retail Market. Research. Retrieved 12 April 2017 from Mullins, K. (2017, May 10). Balanced Scorecard: A Model for Improving Government Performance. BPM Retrieved 13 April 2017 Myer. (2015, Jul 25). Annual Report. Retrieved 12 April 2017, Myer. (2016, October 17). Myer Holdings Limited 2016 Annual Report and Notice of Annual General Meeting. ASX Media Release. Retrieved 12 April 2017, from (2017, Mar 27). Australian Retailers are Unprepared for the Entry of Amazon. Retrieved 12 April 2017 from Pash, C. (2016, Mar 17). Myers 4-Point Plan for turning it around. Business Insider. Retrieved 13 April 2017 from Zizlavsky, O. (2014). The Balanced Scorecard: Innovative Performance Measurement and Management Control System. Journal Technology in Management Innovation, 9(3), 210-222.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Motivation Theories free essay sample

Content theories of motivation are based on the fact that the labor activity of workers due solely to the needs and focus on their identification. In turn, procedural theories of motivation are based on the fact that behavior of an individual is determined not only by a person’s needs, but also by the perception of the situation, expectations for the capacity, as well as the effects of the selected type of behavior, according to Motivation. Needs. It should be noted that Abraham Maslow recognized that people have many different needs and they could be divided into five main categories: he theory of justice expectations. According to this theory, the results achieved by the employee depend on three variables: the effort, the ability of a persons character and awareness of its role in the labor process. The level of effort, in turn, depends on the value of interest and assesses the likelihood of relations efforts and rewarded. We will write a custom essay sample on Motivation Theories or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Achieving the desired results can lead to internal rewards of the satisfaction of the work performed, and external rewards financial incentives, praise, career, etc. It is also believed that there may be a link between performance and employee to give him rewards that reflect the possibilities determined by the head of a particular employee and the organization. Value theory by L. Porter E. Lawler in the practice of motivation is that it shows how important it is to create a motivational system to combine elements such as effort, ability, results, reward, satisfaction and perception. Furthermore L. Porter E. Lawler showed that the high productivity of work is the cause of complete satisfaction, rather than a consequence of it. An important conclusion of this theory is the need to change the employees salary, depending on the success of his work. According to the theory of justice, people have their own assessment of the equity interest issued for certain results. Satisfaction is the result of internal and external rewards based on their equity. Satisfaction is a measure of how valuable reward actually is. This assessment will affect the persons perception of future situations. Motivational concepts that are also enough known are related to a group of content theories are the theory of David McClelland, in which he focuses on the needs of the higher levels: power, success and involvement. On this basis, according to McClelland, there is a fourth requirement to avoid trouble, obstacles or opposition to the implementation of the above three requirements. Motivational and hygienic model of F. Herzberg. It is widely known among scholars and practitioners was another model of motivation, developed F. Hertzberg with employees in the mid 50-ies of XX century and known as the two-factor theory of hygiene. As hygiene factors, he took the following: company policy and administration;Â  working conditions; earnings; interpersonal relationships with superiors, colleagues and subordinates; degree of direct control over the work. Motivation, according to F. Herzberg, is achievement of objectives, promotion, high level of responsibility and autonomy, creative and business growth, recognition, interesting content work. According to F. Herzberg hygiene factors themselves are not a cause for satisfaction, but their degradation leads to dissatisfaction with work, according to Frederick Herzbergs motivation and hygiene factors. Therefore, these factors are not motivating for employees’ value. Group motivators directly cause job satisfaction and affect the level of labor achievements. The theory of five nuclear factors by Hackman and Oldham. In the 70-ies of XX century was published a review of Hackman and Oldham the impact of the content of labor to maintain motivation. Developing the doctrine F. Herzberg, in their model, they identified five so-called nuclear factors, which, to them, a significant effect on work motivation. In accordance with the severity of these factors in the ordinary activities of the employee, they lead to the specific experiences that Hackman and Oldham called critical mental states. Group theory of valence-instrumentality expectations includes concepts of Heinz Heckhausen, Vroom and a number of similar theories relating to procedural learning motivation towards work behavior. Common to these theories is the proposition that there is a requirement not only requirement motivation. People consciously choose a course of conduct which, in their view, would lead to the desired results. These theories try to explain what objectives are formed, and why, how persistent they are pursued to achieve the expected results. The theory of Justice S. Adams. The group process of theories of motivation is aimed at organizational problems of production, the substance of the work, and is to be widely used in the western management theory of justice, developed in the 60 years of XX century. Adams, on the results of studies conducted in the company General-Electric. This theory postulates the search for the individual a certain state of equilibrium with its social environment (in particular, in terms of evaluation and pay, rewards for achievement). Individual compares two relationships: the relationship between his own effort and reward; same ratio, seen in monitoring the activities of others and to compare with their own efforts and reward. The theory of motivation of D. Atkinson. One of the theories is a process known as the theory of motivation of D. Atkinson, the essence of which is as follows. Employee behavior is the result of the interaction of the individual qualities of the individual and the situation of its perception. Each person strives for success, avoids failure and has two related motives: the motive for success and motivations to avoid failures. The theory of reinforcement B. Skinner. A significant contribution to the study of the mechanisms of human motivation to work made development of B. Skinner, who proposed the theory in 1938, increase motivation (reinforcement theory), the essence of which is as follows: peoples behavior is determined by their past experiences. Consequently, workers prefer a mission that in the past entailed positive results, according to Theories of Motivation. All in all, there are many motivational theories and many authors who have shown their opinion considering the issue. Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler, Maslow, Atkinson Heckhausen, and Hackman and Oldham have different point of view but all of them have something in common. The theories of motivation describe the reasons and personal development that a human has and expands its potential, as well as the need for self-actualization that can never be fully satisfied. Works cited Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs motivational model.

Monday, November 25, 2019

how rap effects socity essays

how rap effects socity essays Many individuals in our society today believe that the positive portrayal of violence and sex in rap music has negative effects on its listeners. Due to this widespread perception, many studies have systematically examined rap music for evidence of its negative effects. This issue is important in that rap music has become a universal form of art. Rap music has spread into the suburbs where affluent white youth are among its greatest supporters. It is important to document the extent to which the positive portrayal of violence and sex in rap music effects its listeners, since such music may have a negative impact on today's youth. Violent crime increased by over 500 percent during the three decades ending in 1990. There may be a host of factors contributing to this social pathology, but "violence in the media" is certainly one of them. "Music industry insiders often shirk responsibility by saying their music reflects society but does not impact it," Waliszewski observes. "Some music industry insiders . . . have argued that, as performers and 'actors on the stage,' musicians cannot be held responsible for their fans' criminal behavior. Their anti-social messages are not to be taken seriously because . . . they don't actually mean what they say." Such claims are disingenuous at best. Whether they know what they're doing or not, the purveyors of this musical madness should be held accountable for the damage they've done to an entire generation of young ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Correlation between Unemployment and Divorce Rates in the United Term Paper

The Correlation between Unemployment and Divorce Rates in the United States - Term Paper Example A tendency to emphasize the social and economic costs of unemployment on society in the aggregate avoids the clear and definite problems that joblessness creates in the home. Some of these household challenges are responsible for lowering levels of subjective well-being in society, which exacerbates the negative overall effects of unemployment. One particularly troubling hypothesis is that divorce tends to increase to some degree in proportion to unemployment rates in developed countries (Jensen & Smith, 1990). The marriage destabilization caused by the loss of a job and the perhaps long-term unemployment that results may explain a great number of divorces. However, especially as one deals with aggregate population data from past years, one is not dealing with causal inferences but rather correlational observations. While it is intuitive to speculate that unemployment increases risk to divorce, one could wonder whether divorce is likely to increase unemployment. It does not seem out of the question that marital instability increases one’s chances of being dismissed or issuing a resignation from his or her work. In fact, Rogers and May (2003) found a significant correlation between increases in marital discord (defined as thoughts or actions supportive of divorce) and declines in job satisfaction. Finding a statistical correlation between unemployment and divorce would signify a number of things, namely that individuals facing long-term unemployment but are happy in their marriages should take steps to ensure the sustainability of that relationship through financial hardships. At a broader level, predictors of unemployment can also be taken as predictors of higher divorces, which give society a chance to plan for increased levels of marital instability in addition to unemployment

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Discuss How Fashion And Photography Inform Each Other Essay

Discuss How Fashion And Photography Inform Each Other - Essay Example This paper approves that the intricate relationship between photography and fashion, as evidenced in the existence of numerous fashion/photography collaborations in the history of the world of fashion, points out to the symbiotic relationship between these two fields of practice. Whereas the fashion photographers cannot exist without the designers who produce the subject of their work, the designers, on the other hand, cannot function effectively without the help of the fashion photographers who present their creative designs to the rest of the world in print. In view of the successful working relationship between the designer Issey Miyake and photographer Irving Penn’s, which went beyond commercial necessity to mutual creative respect that benefits both practitioners, it is evident that fashion and photography can, and indeed do inform one another. This paper makes a conclusion that the distinct field of fashion photography has risen out of the love relationship between fashi on and photography that has developed over the years, which has been motivated by both commercial benefits and the creative potential for practitioners in the two fields. Fashion and fashion photography collaborations allow the practitioners in both fields to indulge their creative capacity beyond imagination, thereby giving rise to fashion images that endear, challenge, and even engage individuals at various levels, making the genre of fashion photography unique and powerful.

Monday, November 18, 2019

Exploring Inclusion in a United Kingdom School Dissertation

Exploring Inclusion in a United Kingdom School - Dissertation Example The intention of this study is Inclusion of children with special needs and abilities in schools. Some parents and teachers have different views depending on their situation, as some accept it as a positive educational practice that benefits the included children with special needs as well as mainstream children. On the other hand, others do not agree to combining children with differing abilities and needs. However, breakthroughs in educational research has pushed individuals to acknowledge the practice of inclusion as viable intervention in supporting the development of children with special education needs who are placed in inclusive classrooms. This paper will endeavour to report on explorative research on inclusion in primary schools in the United Kingdom. It reviews related literature on the topic, reporting findings of various studies which mostly include the research methods of observations and interviews. The researcher has gained access to an inclusive classroom as a volunt eer, and in effect, she became a participant observer in the inclusive class. She was not only able to gain information about inclusion in her task as volunteer, but was immersed in the system so she had more in-depth perspective of what it was like to be in an inclusive class. On top of assisting the main teacher, she was vigilant in observing the children’s interactions with each other (how mainstream children interact with children with special needs) and how teachers may have differentiated the mainstream children from the children with special education needs in terms of treatment, planned activities and relationships with them. Research Questions The main research questions that guided this study were the following: Main question: How is inclusion implemented in a UK school? Sub-questions: What are the views of teachers and other adults working in inclusive settings regarding the blending of mainstream children and children with special needs in their classes? Are there any differences in treatment and the given educational programmes for mainstream children and children with special needs within the inclusive classroom? 1 Research Design The researcher was a participant observer in an inclusive school setting. She took down notes on her observations of some classes indoors and the children at play during outdoor play periods. Apart from her observations, she conducted semi-structured interviews

Friday, November 15, 2019

Constituents of ‘Kuwing’ Oil From Irvingia Gabonensis

Constituents of ‘Kuwing’ Oil From Irvingia Gabonensis ABSTRACT Kuwing oil extracted from Irvingia gabonensis seed mash fermentated over 6 days in AgoiIbami community, Nigeria, was analysed for it’s essential oil constituents. Both the fresh seed and the ferment’s oil extracts were analysed for fatty acids, organic acids and essential oils, using GC and GC-MS methods of analysis. Six (6) fatty acids: Oleic, Linoleic, Stearic, Lauric, Behenic acids were found in both samples, while Mystiric was found only in the fermented product.Five(5) organic acids constituents Citric, Glycolic, Oxalic, Malic and Tartaric acids were identified in boththe fresh seed and the ferment. While fifty one (51) chemicals were identified as volatiles or essential oils ,the main constituents are ÃŽ ± -Pinene, Carene, Trans-Ocimene, ÃŽ ±-Terpinene, Cis-Limonene Oxide, Perillaldehyde, Nootkatone, Germacrene-D, and Bornol,about 75% of the oil and nineteen (19) of the identified volatiles responsible for flavour and aroma, making up to 43% of the oil. KEY WORDS: Essential oils, Irvingiagabonensis, Ferment,  Constituents, Kuwingoil. INTRODUCTION In earliest times, Irvingiagabonensis (of simaronbaceae family) was sourced from the vast virgin forest. Then, fruits were allowed to ripen and drop from the tree top before they were hand-picked and usually, hunters gave information on the quantity of fruits on ground. Initial drops were regarded as the fruits â€Å"testing the ground†. As the quantity of fruits on ground increased, collectors were alerted by hunters. Whoever found the fruits first, owned them. No family lineage owns Irvingiagabonensis trees growing in virgin forests. However, with deforestation, some trees can now be found in secondary forests. The fruits were never harvested from the tree but, once they have dropped from the tree they are assumed matured. With increase promotion of non-timber forest products for agro-forestry, the number of irvingia trees’ plantations are on the rise. Once collected, the fruits were heaped against trunks of big trees to rotten for de-pulping. After which, the seeds/nuts were cracked open to extract the edible cotyledons. Increase demand and market expansion for irvingia cotyledon for culinary uses due to attractive revenue has led not only to harvesting the fruits from tree trunks but also splitting fresh fruitsto obtain the cotyledons. The cotyledons are usually processed into a variety of products using different processing methods. Traditionally, fermentation process is employed in the preparation of a number of products, one of which is ‘itugha’ from irvingiavargabonensis (Ekpe, O.O,2007). Sun drying also enhances the quality of bush mango seeds and this attribute give attractive prices for the sun-dried cotyledons. Modernization has adversely affected the preparation and utilization of ‘Itugha’ and this age-long nutrient rich food (Ekpe et al,2007) appears to be gradually disappearing from the community dietary. Distribution of ‘Itugha’ is usually limited to the top family members and very close friends, which always resulted in disaffection among those not so favoured in its distribution. Despite the high food value usually placed on this food item, it is fast becoming extinct. To diversify its utilization, identification of secondary products having other uses can expand and encourage itscommercial production and industrialization. Even though the food value of any food product is a measure of its nutritional potentials, measured by it’s chemical composition.Safety indicators,the level of food toxicants as well as bioavailability of the nutrients are also important (Agube, 1991). Other applications of constituents in a product can be as important as it’s food value. As such, identifying essential oil constituents of itugha can promote it’sother non-food utilization as well as it’s food uses. Essential oils are any class of highly volatile organic compounds found in plants.Chemically, essential oils are extremely complex mixtures containing compounds of very major functional-group class like terpenes, isoprenoids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and phenols. Essential oils have three primary commercial uses; as odorants in perfumes, soaps, detergents and other products: as flavours in baked goods, candies, soft drinks and other foods: and as pharmaceutical in dental products and many medicines. ( Britannicaconcised encyclopedia, Aroma Web). Most people use essential oils for their therapeutic effects as they tend to leave beneficial bacteria intact while killing the pathogens or for their fragrance alone. BuchbauerJirovetz(1994) published an excellent survey on the uses of essential oils as medicament. Studies have shown that bacteria do not acquire resistance to essential oils as they do with antibiotics and plant essential oils are also known for their antimicrobia l activitye.g. essential oils of Dacryodisedulis- African pear (Obameet at 2008). Today when so many illnesses and bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics, the therapeutic effects of essential oils and their immune-boosting abilities may be just what we need to explore. Essential oils can be detected in all the cells of the body 21 minutes after application. Essential oils are designated and defined by the plant species and sometimes geographical location( McGraw-Hill Science Technology Encyclopedia). Kuwing oil produced from seeds of Irvingiagabonensis pulverized and fermented over 6 days and heat treated for 2 days, is investigated for it’s essential oil composition. The value of non-timber forest products lies in their use as a supplementary food supply, as a source of vitamins, as snacks during hunting and gathering forays in the bush, as beverages, building materials, farm and kitchen tools and in the maintenance of traditional rites and pastimes (Alexandaretal, 1994). A key feature of the Irvingia study has been the gathering and documentation of indigenous knowledge on the species to expand the scope of available information on its possible utilization and application.. To the best of our knowledge, no literature information is available on essential oil composition of‘kuwing oil’ fromIrvingiagabonensis. Thus this study would in addition to, exploring precursor compounds in fresh odourlessirvingiagabonensis seed, highlight constituents of kuwing oil for its utilization prospects in industry especially for non-food purposes. The fresh seed is odourless, colourless and without flavour. Macerating/pounding, heat treatment and fermenting mashed seeds in control conditions produces odour and flavourin the mash. This is known to increases its acceptance in the food industry and projects potential utilization prospects in the non-food industry. In this paper we are reporting the chemical composition of essential oils of ‘kuwing oil’ extracted from irvingiagabonensis seed. This study will cover identification of possible precursors of flavour compounds e.g. fatty acids and organic acids from fresh irvingia seeds and the volatiles or essential oils constituents, of kuwing oil, from heat treated fermented irvingiagabonensis seed mash. MATERIALS AND METHOD Fresh Irvingiagabonensis seeds was milled with the mill unit of a National blender, Model MX 495 for six (6) days under controlled condition. After each day’s milling, the mash was wrapped withPiper umbellantum leaves. This was to simulate the repeated milling under controlled conditions, that is necessary for the production of a fermented traditional spread from I. gabonensis called ‘itugha’ . Oil drip from this ferment is the ‘Kuwing’ Oil. The fatty acid content of fresh Irvingia seed and Kuwing Oil sample were determined using the method of International laboratory (1993). In this method, the samples were first extracted with petiether to remove the oiliness in the samples. The lipid extracts were Methylated and the methyl esters of the respective fatty acids in the solvent fractions were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography. A 250ml flask was weighed( wo), 5g of sample quantitatively weighed into a fat extraction thimble and 250ml petroleum ether poured into the previously weighed flask containing anti-bumping chips. A soxhlet extractor into which the thimble with its contents had been introduced was then fitted into the round bottom flask and the extraction apparatus mounted on a heating mantle. The contents of the flask were heated and extraction process continued for about 15 hours. At the end of extraction, petroleum ether in the round bottom flask was distilled off the oily extract with the soxhlet and the litt le quantity finally evaporated off in a water bath at 500c. The flask and the fat extract were finally dried in a hot air circulating oven at 1000C, cooled in a desiccator and weighed (w1) Methylation of Fat Extract i.The fat sample were heated for 2 hours under a current of nitrogen at 80-900C with 4%sulphuric acid in methanol. ii.After cooling and the addition of distilled water, iii.the resulting methyl esters were extracted several times into hexane. iv.The combined extracts were dried over sodium carbonate and anhydrous sodium sulphate (in a dessicator). v.The solvent fraction was then reduced in volume by a stream of nitrogen. Gas-Liquid Chromatography Each methylated oil samples were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography on a Carlo Erba gas chromatograh 5160 Mega series, equipped with a shimadzu data processor C-R3A using the following experimental conditions: (a)Glass capillary column 25m x 0.32mm i.d coated with SE 52. (b)Column temperature 600C (c)Injector and detector temperature 2800C. (d)Carrier gas-hydrogen about 0.40 Kgcm-2 (e)Injection mode-split detector F ID (Field ion desorption). (f)Identification of compounds – retention time and by GC-MS using a Finnigan Mat ITD 800 with a 25m x 0.32mm i.d. fused-silica capillary column coated with SE 52. (g)Column temperature 60-2400C at 30C/min. (h)Ionizing voltage 70eV Organic acid content was determined in Irvingia seed and the ferment from which Kuwing oil was extracted, by Gas chromatography – Mass Spectrometry, Bengtsson and Lehotay method (1996) with some modification. 1g of sample was pulverized with 1ml of distilled water, acidified with 1ml 1M HCl to a pH of about 1.0, saturated with NaCl, then extracted with 3ml of ethyl acetate and 3ml of diethyl ether. The organic phases were combined and evaporated to dryness under nitrogen. The sample was derivatised with 0.100ml of BSTFA-TMCS at 650C for 10 min, diluted with 0.400ml of hexane/ethyl acetate (50% v/v) and 1  µ1 was injected into the GC-MS and analysed. Gas chromatographic, mass spectral and data analysis on Carlo Erba gas chromatograh 5160 Mega Series, equipped with a Shimadzu data Processor C-R3A: Sample was analysed by GC-MS by injecting 1 u1 of the sample in spliteless mode onto an open tubular glass capillary column 25m x 0.32mm i.d coated with SE 52, and the injector was k ept at 2500C. The carrier gas was hydrogen, with a flow-rate of 1ml/min. The GC oven was held at 900C for 4min, then raised at 80C/min. The peaks were identified by reference to a mass spectral library. Essential/ volatile oils present in irvingia seeds and kuwing oil were identified using Giovanni Dugo and AnthonellVerzera (1993) method. In this method, fat extract was obtained from 10g of sample with petroleum ether. The sample of oil was prepared for gas-liquid chromatography on a Carlo Erba gas chromatograph 5160 mega series column 25m x 0.32mm i-d, 600C at 30C/min and hydrogen carrier gas 10g of sample was extracted with 100ml of petroleum ether (60-800C) by soxhlet extraction. Petroleum ether was distilled to afford an oily fraction prepared for gas-liquid chromatography analysis. GC-MC analysis of Volatiles: The volatile fraction were collected by steam distillation and the volatiles were extracted thoroughly into methylene dichloride and concentrated. The concentrated volatiles were separated by gas-liquid chromatography on a Carlo Erba gas chromatograh 5160 Mega series, equipped with a shimadzu data processor C-R3A under the following experimental conditions: i.Glass capillary column 25m x 0.32mm i.d. coated with SE 52. ii.Column temperature 600C to 1000C at 30C/min. iii.Injector and detector temperature 2800C iv.Carrier gas0hydrogen about 0.40kgcm-2 v.Injection mode-split detector field ion desorption (FID). vi.Identification compounds – retention time and by GC-MC using a Finnigam Mat ITD 800 with a 25mm x 0.32mm i.d. fused-silica capillary column coated with SE 52. vii.Column temperature 60-2500C at 30C/min viii.Ionizing voltage 70eV. Relative amounts of detected compounds were calculated based on GC peaks. Volatiles Identification in Kuwing Oil Essential oils constituents of Kuwing oil identified against standards 1. ÃŽ ± -Pinene 2. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Pinene 3. Camphene 4. Carene 5. ÃŽ ±-Terpinene 6. p-Cymene + Limonene 7. Trans-à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Ocimene 8. Y-terpinene 9. Octanol 10.Terpinolene 11. Trans-Sarbine hydrate 12. Nonanal 13. Cis-Limonene Oxide 14. Trans-limonene Oxide 15. Isopulegol 16. Citronellal 17. Borneol 18. ÃŽ ±-Terpinol 19. Decanal 20. Nerola + Citronellol 21. Neral 22. Piperitone 23. Linalyl acetate 24. Geranial 25. Perillaldehyde 26. Undecanal 27. Nonyla acetate 28. ÃŽ ±-ester 29. ÃŽ ±-Terpernyl acetate 30. Citronellyl acetate 31. Neryl acetate 32. Heranyl acetate 33. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Caryophyllene 34. Trans-à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Bergamotene 35. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Humulene 36. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Sabtalene 37. Aldehydic ester 38. Germacrene-D 39. Germacrane-B 40. Germacrane-D 41. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Bisobolene 42. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-Sesquiphellandrene 43. Trans-ÃŽ ±-Nerolidol 44. Cis, trans-Fernesol 45. NootKatone DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Gas-liquid chromatography estimation of fatty acids in Irvingiagabonensis seed and the ferment is shown in Table 1. Six fatty acid fractions were identified in the ferment and five in Irvingia seed. Oleic, linoleic, stearic,lauric and behenic acids were identified in the ferment. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid inIrvingia seed and ferment. The level of oleic acid was very low both in the ferment and Irvingia seed. Processing had little or no effect on its level. Stearic acid level in Irvingia seed was very low. However, processing increased its level significantly in the ferment. The levels of stearic, lauric and behenic acids were also increased in the ferment. The decreases in linoleic acid in the ferment is very revealing. Linoleic acid can be oxidatively degraded to C6 aldehydes, alcohols and their esters. These C6 compounds play significant roles in essential oils development (Kobayashi et al., 1994). This type of degradation might be the cause of decrease in leve l of linolenic acid from 80% total lipid in Irvingia seed to about 52% total lipid in the ferment. There were good levels of stearic acid, behenic acid (a seed triglyceride) and mystiric acid in the ferment. Mystiric acid was not detected in Irvingia seed but was detected in good proportion in the ferment. McBurneyetal. 1990) reported that microbial fermentation of starch results in the production of some fatty acids, depending on the chemical composition of the starch. This could explain the appearance of mystiric acid in the ferment which was hitherto absent in Irvingiagabonensis seed. The high level of mystiric acid in the ferment could have been due to microbial enzyme hydrolysis of starches in Irvingiagabonensis seed, and subsequent degradation to aldehydes, alcohols etc. Table 2 shows organic acid content of Irvingia seed and the ferment. Organic acids influenced pH that determines microbial growth and serve as preservatives. They influence the formation, type and rate of thermally produced flavour (Maga, 1994). These acids could have been produced from the non-total oxidation of sugars, as well as the deamination of amino acids, ascorbic acid and polyphenolic acids. Formation of volatiles in food can also be attributed to enzymic biosynthesis. The cell rupturing which took place during maceration of irvingiaseeds, could have caused enzymes and precursors of essential oils to come in contact with one another. Bacterial growth suppression and primary metabolism can trigger biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in cell cultures ( Prahba et al., 1990). This agrees with bacterial growth suppression in controlled fermentation of the irvingia seed mash in itughaproduction( Ekpe,O.O.2009).Some of the Organic acids identified in the fresh seeds were lost in the ferment e.g. Malic acid in the seed 6.28% decreased to 0.11% in the ferment, Citric acid in the seed 16.0% to 2% in the ferment and Oxalic acid 6.6% seed to 2% ferment while fatty acid like Linoleic acid decreased from 80% in the seed to 52% in the ferment. Autolysis consisting of plasmolysis followed by proteolysis usually require up to 24 hours of temperatures above 45o c. Plasmolysis can be initiated by different treatments including hot air drying( Saeki et al., 1989). This is in consonant with the observation that volatiles of kuwing oil were formed not less than 24 hours of hot air drying of the irvingia ferment. Each autolysate is known to have its own distinctive taste and odour(Lieske and Konrad, 1994). Fig.1 shows constituent of kuwingoil (essential oil) revealing the presence of Terpenes like Citronellal, Limonene, Terpinolene, ÃŽ ±-Terpinene and isoprenoids among others.The extraction and synthesis of terpenes is the basis of the perfumery industry. They find a variety of uses in the food and pharmaceutical industry as flavor and odour improver. Citronellal is known to have insect repellant properties and research show its high repellant effectiveness against mosquitoes and strong antifungal qualities(Jeong-Kyu KIM et al.,2005; Kazuhiko NAKAHARA et al.,2003; Solomons, T.W.G 2006). ÃŽ ±-Pinene, camphene, ÃŽ ´3-carene, Trans-ÃŽ ²-ocimene, Y-terpinene, octanol, cis-Limonene oxide, Neral and Perillaldehyde constitute 75% of the oil Odourlessirvingiagabonensis seed, macerated and fermentedover six days producedKuwing oil on exposure to temperatures above 45 degrees celcius. This oil was obtained by compressing, extracting, or distilling off heat sensitive volatiles from crushed and fermented irvingiagabonensis seedsSince essential oils often have odour and are therefore used in food flavouring/ perfumery, kuwing oil can qualify as of perfume quality oil which should be included among oils found in health foods(Wiley Dictionary of Flavours). When extracted for this purpose, extremely low pressure and low heat distillation is recommended( Wikipedia).On analyses for essential oils constituents, 75% of these constituents are established essential oil constituents used in industries. And 45% of these find application in perfumery and aromatory industries. Others have been known to have antimicrobial and antifungal activity e.g.ÃŽ ±-pinene, camphene, careen, octanol, Limonene, Neral, Citronellal etc. It is expedient t hen to list kuwing oil from irvingiagabonensis seed as an essential oil.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Animal Testing Essay -- Animal Testing

Animal Testing   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Using Animals for testing is wrong and should be banned. They should be entitled to the rights we have. Every day humans are using defenseless animals for cruel and most often useless tests. The animals cannot fight for themselves therefore we must. There should be stronger laws to protect them from laboratory experiments.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Although private companies run most labs, experiments are often conducted by public organizations. The U.S. government, the Army and Air Force in particular, has designed and conducted many animal experiments. The experiments were engineered so that many animals would suffer and die without any certainty that this suffering and death would save a single life, or benefit humans in any way at all. An example of this is some tens of thousands of Beagles experimented with. In Albuquerque, New Mexico, 64 Beagles were forced to inhale radioactive Strontium 90 as part of a â€Å"Fission Product Inhalation Program† which has been paid for by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In this experiment 26 dogs died. One of the deaths occurred during an epileptic seizure; another from brain hemorrhage. Other dogs, before death, became feverish and anemic, lost their appetites, and had hemorrhages. The experimenters compared their results to those experiments conducted at th e University of Utah and the Argonne National Laboratory in which beagles were injected with Strontium 90. They concluded that the...